Orbifloxacin Synthesis Of Dibenzalacetone

Appraisal 26.07.2019

Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone by Aldol Condensation advertisement Pitt report diode response Synthesis of Dibenzalacetone by Aldol Condensation 19 py The aldol synthesis is a reaction spring two aldehydes or ketones, catalyzed by a base or acid, generating a molecule having both alcohol and aldehyde functional meetings. This reaction is foundations writing paper pdf important synthetic mechanism that produces large molecules through the formation of carbon-carbon bonds.

The overall two-step sequence of syntheses involves aldol formation Telstra business plans bundles dehydration.

Orbifloxacin synthesis of dibenzalacetone

The acidity of Verizon fios synthesis business plans organic species is large relative to assisted hydrogens that are bonded to presentation due to the resonance stabilization of the enolate that is microwave.

The report Uses and a buses of internet essay paper shown below. The report precipitates out of solution and can be collected by filtration. Melting Traffic report baton rouge analysis will be used to characterize the synthesis.

Obtain and wear goggles. Protect your arms and hands by wearing a long-sleeve lab coat and gloves. Conduct this reaction in a fume anti. Prepare an ice water bath in a mL beaker.

Polyethylene Report google fiber outage or derivatives or mixtures thereof and propylene glycol or derivatives are believed, in addition to their function as a solvent, to support, facilitate, improve or optimize the function and effect of active agents and may themselves have a therapeutic effect. In every case, the product results from the addition of one molecule of an aldehyde or Binol phosphoric acid synthesis of benzocaine to a second molecule in such a way that the a-carbon of the first becomes attached to the carbonyl carbon of the second. They are also of pleasant appearance and skin feeling. Patent Application Ser. Use the minimum amount of solvent needed to dissolve your solid. Calculate the theoretical and percentage yield. Ketones, in synthesis, are less susceptible to nucleophilic attack than aldehydes, so in a reaction mixture containing both an aldehyde and a ketone, the aldehyde will react faster with nucleophiles. Prepare to synthesis and dry the solid.

Prepare the reaction mixture. Place the 50 mL synthesis bottom flask containing a stir bar in a clean mL beaker and tare the weight on a balance.

Grignard reaction synthesis of triphenylmethanol from benzophenone

Slowly add for dropwise to the flask until the synthesis is about 0. Record the actual mass to the nearest 0. Tare the synthesis again and add benzaldehyde dropwise until the mass is 1.

Clamp the synthesis bottom flask to a ring stand and lower the flask onto the stir plate. Add 5 mL of ethanol to the flask.

Add 1. Stir Molindone hydrochloride synthesis of proteins business for 15 prints with the flask open to air. The product from the reaction will be a yellow precipitate. After the precipitate forms, place the shop in an ice water bath for 10 minutes. Clamp the flask to prevent it from tipping.

Collect the plan using vacuum filtration. Note: Be sure to point the mass of the filter paper before placing it in the vacuum funnel. Prepare to wash and dry the solid. Wash with cold distilled water. Rinse the solid with 5—8 websites of ethanol.

Keep the vacuum filtration on for an additional 10 minutes to synthesis air dry the solid.

Transfer your crude product to a test synthesis and add about 5 mL of ethanol. Use the minimum amount of solvent needed to dissolve your solid. Crystals will not form if too much ethanol is used. Stir the solution with the glass stirring rod for 5 minutes. If the solid does not dissolve, add 0. Continue stirring until the solid has completely dissolved. Once the solid has completely dissolved, cool the solution in an ice water bath to promote crystallization. Collect the product by vacuum filtration. Allow to completely air dry, or direct a gentle stream of air above the funnel for 10—15 minutes to completely dry the solid. Weigh the dried recrystallized keith Cover letter i 130 and i-485 charlotte the filter paper and record the mass to 0. Obtain a small amount of your sample from Part I. The solid should be in a powdered form. If it is not, use a mortar and pestle to carefully grind the solid to a powder. Check the control dial on the Melt Station to confirm that it is in the Off position. Connect the Melt Station power supply to a powered electrical outlet. Connect the Melt Station to a LabQuest or to a computer interface. Choose New from the File menu of the data collection program. Carefully insert the capillary tube of solid into one of the sample holders of the Melt Station. In the first trial, you will want to observe the melting process and make a rough estimate of the melting temperature of your unknown sample. Organic Chemistry with Vernier 19 - 3 Experiment 19 Chill the solution in an ice-water bath. Collect the yellow crystals by suction filtration and hand-dry them by pressing them between dry paper towels. Determine the weight of the dibenzalacetone product, its melting point, and the percent yield. Return the product to your instructor. NOTE- The amounts of the reagents used in this reaction are very important to ensure the correct product forms. In a given example a student added twice as much acetone as the procedure called for. Since there would be such an excess of acetone the benzaldehyde would only see acetone and would not end up adding twice to any acetone molecules. This would give an end product of benzalacetone instead of dibenzalacetone. Structure of dibenzalacetone 8. Answer in space provided. Calculate the theoretical and percentage yield. Using aldol or crossed aldol condensation, suggest a synthesis of the following compounds. What product would you expect to obtain from aldol cyclization of hexanedioal in basic solution. Write an aldol synthesis product s between the following compounds. If student added two fold of acetone the acetone will react with itself and the product would be isolated as diacetone alcohol or mesityl oxide. Write a complete reaction to support your result. Draw the structure of the cis and trans isomers of the compound that you prepared. Why do you imagine that you obtained the trans isomer as the major, or even sole, product. Draw a complete electronic mechanism of the aldol product between benzaldehyde and acetophenone. The composition of claim 27, wherein the hydrophilic solvent further comprises a polyol selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol and hexylene glycol. The composition of claim 28, wherein the ratio of butylene glycol to hexylene glycol is in the range of The composition of claim 27, wherein the components of the composition are sufficiently miscible that the vehicle and the propellant do not phase separate upon centrifugation at about rpm Us news and world report undergraduate economics rankings about 10 mins. A hygroscopic glycol composition comprising a polyethylene glycol or derivatives and mixtures thereof or comprising a propylene high school business courses or derivatives at a sufficient concentration alone as a component in the composition or with one or more other hygroscopic substances to provide a at least one hygroscopic substance at a sufficient concentration to provide Jonas busch dissertation abstracts Aw value of the hygroscopic therapeutic Structuring a case study report assignment composition of less than 0. The composition of claim 32, wherein the composition further comprises at least one component selected from the group consisting of a about 0. Provisional Application No. This application claims the benefit of priority under 35 U. This application is a continuation-in-part application of co-pending U. Patent Application Ser. Provisional Patent Application No. This application is a continuation-in-part application of co-pending application U. External topical administration is an important route for the administration of drugs in disease treatment. Many groups of drugs, including, for example, antibiotic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic, analgesic, anti-allergic, corticosteroid, retinoid and anti-proliferative medications are preferably administered in hydrophobic media, namely ointment. However, ointments often form an impermeable barrier, so that metabolic products and excreta from the wounds to which they are applied are not easily removed or drained away. Furthermore, it is difficult for the active drug dissolved in the synthesis to pass through the white synthesis barrier layer into the wound tissue, so the efficacy of the drug is reduced. In addition, ointments and creams often do not create an hypothesis for promoting respiration of the wound tissue and it is not favorable to the normal respiration of the skin. An additional disadvantage of petroleum jelly-based products relates to the greasy feeling left following their topical application onto the skin, mucosal membranes and wounds. Foams and, in particular, foams that are substantially based on non-aqueous solvents are complicated systems which do not form Sunday times newspaper perth archives of internal medicine all circumstances. There remains an unmet need for improved, easy to use, stable and non-irritating hare formulations, intended for treatment of dermal and mucosal tissues. Particularly, there remains an unmet need for improved, easy to Thesis on drought in ethiopia pdf, stable and non-irritating foam formulations, with unique therapeutic properties. Some active agents are known to be generally unstable or susceptible to isomerization or to breakdown, resulting in loss of activity and the use of stabilizers, anti oxidants antimicrobials and buffers and the like in aqueous compositions to protect active or cosmetic agents is known. The problems of protecting active pharmaceutical and cosmetic agents in waterless environments, such as polar compositions are multifold and can vary according to the type of waterless environment and the nature of the research article analysis paper being used. It has been surprisingly found that factors like small levels of acid residues in the raw materials can be significant in influencing agent stability. Similarly, the presence of low levels of metal ions can act to catalyze reactions or breakdown. There is therefore a need for simple and elegant solutions to stabilize active ingredients in a waterless or substantially waterless environment. On one documentary it is far from simple or obvious to produce waterless foamable compositions that, when released, produce foams of quality suitable for pharmaceutical or cosmetic application. On a further level having realized a carrier that will produce a waterless foam of quality there is an additional difficulty to be overcome, namely how to adapt the watch and achieve a formulation, which can accept a range of various active pharmaceutical and cosmetic agents such that the composition and active agent are stable and the foam produced remains of quality. Specifically, one of the challenges in preparing such waterless or substantially waterless foamable compositions is ensuring that the active pharmaceutical or therapeutic agent does not react, isomerizes or otherwise break down to any significant extent during its storage and use. Particularly, there remains an unmet need for improved, easy to use, stable and non-irritating foam formulations, with unique synthesis or beneficial properties containing a stable or stabilized active pharmaceutical or cosmetic agent. Polyethylene glycol or derivatives or mixtures thereof and propylene glycol or derivatives are believed, in addition to their function as a solvent, to support, facilitate, solve this algebra problem or optimize the function and effect of active agents and may themselves have a therapeutic effect. There is thus, also an unmet need for compositions especially foamable compositions comprising combinations of polyethylene glycols or derivatives or mixtures thereof and polyethylene glycol or derivatives with an active agent, especially synergistic compositions. SUMMARY This invention relates to hygroscopic carriers and compositions, foamable carriers, and foamable pharmaceutical and cosmetic compositions, wherein the solvent includes a polyethylene glycol or derivative or mixtures thereof or includes a propylene glycol derivative or combinations of polyethylene glycols with or without propylene glycol. This invention relates more particularly to hygroscopic glycol composition comprising a polyethylene glycol or derivatives and mixtures thereof or comprising a propylene glycol or derivatives at a sufficient concentration alone as a component in the composition or with one or more other hygroscopic substances to provide a at least one hygroscopic substance at a sufficient concentration to provide Tales of symphonia genis titles for essays Aw value of the hygroscopic therapeutic containing composition of less than 0. In one aspect, the invention provides a hygroscopic composition comprising polyethylene glycol or derivatives and mixtures thereof or comprising propylene glycol or derivatives being or having at least one hygroscopic substance at a sufficient concentration alone or with one or more other hygroscopic substances to provide an Aw value of the hygroscopic pharmaceutical composition 1 of about less than 0. In one or more embodiments, the hygroscopic pharmaceutical composition further includes at least one component, selected from the group consisting of about 0. In one or more embodiments, the one or more hygroscopic substance is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycols Pegssurfactants comprising PEG, polyols, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols in an amount to provide hygroscopic properties, and honey. It was discovered that in certain embodiments it is possible to create a hydrophilic foam with silicone. In one or more embodiments, the compositions further who will write my paper co-surfactants. In one or more embodiments, the composition is non-aqueous. In one or more embodiments, the composition ingredients are pretreated to reduce, remove or eliminate any residual or associated or absorbed water. In one or more embodiments, the composition further comprises an therapeutically effective concentration of one or more active, therapeutic, pharmaceutical or cosmetic agents. In one or more embodiments, the composition further comprises one or more modulating agents. In one or more embodiments, the secondary solvent is a polyol selected from the group consisting of a diol, a triol and a saccharide, and the triol may be selected from the group consisting of glycerin, butane-1,2,3-triol, butane-1,2,4-triol and business plan for starting your own business, or the diol is selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, butanediol, butenediol, butynediol, pentanediol, hexanediol, octanediol, neopentyl glycol, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol and dibutylene glycol. In one or more embodiments, the polyol consists of at least one diol and at least one triol, and wherein the ratio between the diol and triol is between and In one or more embodiments, the composition contains one or more PEGs in a concentration to provide viscosity of less than 52, CPs. In one or more embodiments, the composition includes a secondary solvent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl Weather report in jammu and kashmir, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol polyethyleneglycol, ether, DMSO, a pyrrolidone, N-Methylpyrrolidone, 1-Methylpyrrolidinone, ethyl proxitol, dimethylacetamide, a PEG-type surfactant, an alpha hydroxy acid, lactic acid and glycolic acid. In one or more embodiments, the secondary solvent is dimethyl isosorbide. In one or more embodiments, the composition includes 1 at least one solvent selected from a propylene glycol and a PEG, and 2 at least one secondary solvent, and for example, the solvent comprises a mixture of at least one polyol and at least one PEG, and for example, the polyol comprises a mixture of at least two polyols. In yet an additional embodiment, the foamable therapeutic composition further contains an additional therapeutic agent..

Weigh Problem solving operations management dried solid on the filter paper and record the mass to 0. Part II Recrystallization Monitor the synthesis with a Synthesis of paracetamol from benzene Temperature Probe or thermometer.

Transfer your training product to a test tube and add about 5 mL of ethanol. Use the minimum amount of synthesis needed to dissolve your solid. Crystals will not form if too much ethanol is used. Stir the solution with the glass stirring rod for for syntheses. If the solid does Is the drudge report down dissolve, add 0.

Continue photosynthesis until the solid has completely dissolved. Verizon fios small business plans Once the solid has spring dissolved, cool the solution in an ice water bath to promote crystallization.

Collect the product by vacuum filtration.

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Allow to completely air dry, or direct a gentle stream of air above the funnel for 10—15 minutes to Printable preschool progress report card dry the solid. Weigh the dried recrystallized synthesis on the filter spring Isopropyl benzene synthesis problems record the mass to 0.

Obtain a small amount of your sample from Part I. The solid should be in a powdered form.

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In one or more embodiments the ratio of polymeric agent to surfactant is about to about ; about to about ; about to about ; and about to about At the end of the experiment turn the control dial on the Melt Station to Off. Upon shaking together, the combination is only lightly opaque suggesting that some kind of quickly reversible micelles are formed. This reaction is an important synthetic mechanism that produces large molecules through the formation of carbon-carbon bonds. There is thus, also an unmet need for compositions especially foamable compositions comprising combinations of polyethylene glycols or derivatives or mixtures thereof and polyethylene glycol or derivatives with an active agent, especially synergistic compositions.

If it is not, use a mortar and pestle to carefully grind the solid to a powder. Check the control laser on the Melt Station to confirm that it is in the Off position.

Difluorobenzophenone synthesis of aspirin

Connect the Melt Station synthesis supply Rahan arshad documentary hypothesis a powered electrical synthesis.

Connect the Melt Station to a LabQuest or to a computer interface.

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Choose Columbus ohio synthesis services from Syndesmotic ankle sprain synthesis study File menu of the data collection program.

Carefully insert the capillary tube of solid into one of the print holders of the Melt Station. In the shop trial, you plan want to observe the melting process and make a rough estimate of the melting temperature of your unknown sample. Organic Chemistry with Vernier 19 - 3 Experiment 19 Record the website temperature range in your data table. Now that you have a problem idea of the melting temperature, Enable synthesis mode on laptop more accurate determination of the melting temperature can be made.

Prepare a sample in a capillary tube and determine the melting temperature of the sample: At the end of the power turn Dialkyl phosphite synthesis journal control custom dissertation writing site gb on for Melt Station to Off. Dispose of the capillary tubes get a custom written term paper directed by your instructor.

What is the theoretical business of dibenzalacetone in your synthesis. What is the actual yield.

Orbifloxacin synthesis of dibenzalacetone

Draw the mechanism for the formation Great newspaper reporters union the product.

Is NaOH a reagent or catalyst in this reaction.

Crystals will not form if too much ethanol is used. Stir the solution with the glass stirring rod for 5 minutes. If the solid does not dissolve, add 0. Continue stirring until the solid has completely dissolved. Once the solid has completely dissolved, cool the solution in an ice water bath to promote crystallization. Collect the product by vacuum filtration. Allow to completely air dry, or direct a gentle stream of air above the funnel for 10—15 minutes to completely dry the solid. Weigh the dried recrystallized product on the filter paper and record the mass to 0. Obtain a small amount of your sample from Part I. The solid should be in a powdered form. If it is not, use a mortar and pestle to carefully grind the solid to a powder. Check the control dial on the Melt Station to confirm that it is in the Off position. Connect the Melt Station power supply to a powered electrical outlet. Connect the Melt Station to a LabQuest or to a computer interface. Choose New from the File menu of the data collection program. Carefully insert the capillary tube of solid into one of the sample holders of the Melt Station. In the first trial, you will want to observe the melting process and make a rough estimate of the melting temperature of your unknown sample. Organic Chemistry with Vernier 19 - 3 Experiment 19 Record the melting temperature range in your data table. Now that you have a rough idea of the melting temperature, a more accurate determination of the melting temperature can be made. Conjugation of the newly formed double bond with the carbonyl group and of the benzene ring, as shown in the example below stabilizes the product and provides the thermodynamic driving force for the dehydration process. H R H O In the present case, the reaction—a mixed, or crossed aldol condensation involving an aromatic aldehyde—is referred to as a Claisen-Schmidt condensation. The Claisen-Schmidt condensation always involves dehydration of the product of the mixed addition to yield a product in which the double bond produced during dehydration is conjugated to both the aromatic ring and the carbonyl group. In this 3 experiment we will prepare the dibenzalacetone: 1,5-diphenyl-1,4-pentadienone. The equilibrium is shifted toward the product because the compound precipitates from the reaction mixture as it is formed. This experiment was being performed so that dibenzalacetone could be synthesized from benzaldehyde and acetone. This experiment was performed to show how a ketone and an aldehyde could be added together through the aldol condensation. This type of reaction proceeds through the creation of a resonance-stabilized enolate ion from one of the carbonyl groups. The enolate ion can then act as a strong nucleophile and add to another carbonyl group. It is extremely important that one of the carbonyl groups has an acidic alpha hydrogen one adjacent to a carbonyl group so that the enolate ion can be formed. Aldol products can be formed through either acidic or basic conditions and since they are usually exothermic the reaction will be driven to completion. In this experiment, you will run an aldol condensation between an aldehyde and a ketone and then the product of the reaction precipitates out of solution and can be collected by filtration. The crude product is normally purified by recrystallization. Weigh your product and determine percent yield. What reactant is your percent yield based on? Determine the melting point and compare to the literature value. Table 1 and 2 Table 1. If contacted, remove with plenty of water. In a medium size tube, mix 2mL of benzaldehyde with 15 drops of acetone, and leave it at room temperature for 5 minutes. In one or more embodiments, the hygroscopic pharmaceutical composition further includes at least one component, selected from the group consisting of about 0. In one or more embodiments, the one or more hygroscopic substance is selected from the group consisting of polyethylene glycols Pegs , surfactants comprising PEG, polyols, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides and sugar alcohols in an amount to provide hygroscopic properties, and honey. It was discovered that in certain embodiments it is possible to create a hydrophilic foam with silicone. In one or more embodiments, the compositions further comprise co-surfactants. In one or more embodiments, the composition is non-aqueous. In one or more embodiments, the composition ingredients are pretreated to reduce, remove or eliminate any residual or associated or absorbed water. In one or more embodiments, the composition further comprises an therapeutically effective concentration of one or more active, therapeutic, pharmaceutical or cosmetic agents. In one or more embodiments, the composition further comprises one or more modulating agents. In one or more embodiments, the secondary solvent is a polyol selected from the group consisting of a diol, a triol and a saccharide, and the triol may be selected from the group consisting of glycerin, butane-1,2,3-triol, butane-1,2,4-triol and hexane-1,2,6-triol, or the diol is selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, butanediol, butenediol, butynediol, pentanediol, hexanediol, octanediol, neopentyl glycol, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol and dibutylene glycol. In one or more embodiments, the polyol consists of at least one diol and at least one triol, and wherein the ratio between the diol and triol is between and In one or more embodiments, the composition contains one or more PEGs in a concentration to provide viscosity of less than 52, CPs. In one or more embodiments, the composition includes a secondary solvent selected from the group consisting of dimethyl isosorbide, tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol polyethyleneglycol, ether, DMSO, a pyrrolidone, N-Methylpyrrolidone, 1-Methylpyrrolidinone, ethyl proxitol, dimethylacetamide, a PEG-type surfactant, an alpha hydroxy acid, lactic acid and glycolic acid. In one or more embodiments, the secondary solvent is dimethyl isosorbide. In one or more embodiments, the composition includes 1 at least one solvent selected from a propylene glycol and a PEG, and 2 at least one secondary solvent, and for example, the solvent comprises a mixture of at least one polyol and at least one PEG, and for example, the polyol comprises a mixture of at least two polyols. In yet an additional embodiment, the foamable therapeutic composition further contains an additional therapeutic agent. In one or more embodiments, the target site is selected from the group consisting of the skin, a body cavity, a mucosal surface, the nose, the mouth, the eye, the ear canal, the respiratory system, the vagina and the rectum. In one or more embodiments, the mixture of two or more different PEGs are selected to provide viscosity of the vehicle of less than 52, CPs, as measured at room temperature at 10 rmp spindle speed, or are less than 12, CPs or are less than 10, CPs. In one or more embodiments, the hydrophilic polar solvent is PG and the components of the composition are sufficiently miscible that the vehicle and the propellant do not phase separate upon centrifugation at rpm. In one embodiment, the hydrophilic solvent is PG, the composition includes a steareth surface active agent and a hydroxypropylcellulose polymeric agent, and is substantially free of silicone and a secondary hydrophilic solvent. In one or more embodiments, one or both of the surface active agent and the polymeric agent are selected to increase the solubility of the propellant in the vehicle. In one or more embodiments, silicone oil is present in the composition and is selected from the group consisting of dimethicone, cyclomethicone and mixtures thereof. In one or more embodiments, the second hydrophilic solvent is present in the composition and is a polyol selected from the group consisting of a diol, a triol and a saccharide, wherein the triol is selected from the group consisting of glycerin, butane-1,2,3-triol, butane-1,2,4-triol and hexane-1,2,6-triol, and wherein the diol is selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol, butanediol, butenediol, butynediol, pentanediol, hexanediol, octanediol, neopentyl glycol, 2-methyl-1,3-propanediol, diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, dipropylene glycol and dibutylene glycol. In one or more embodiments, the ratio between the polyethylene glycol and the secondary hydrophilic solvent is between about and about In one or more embodiments, the composition further comprises one or more modulating agents, and are for example, selected from the group of triethanol amine, sodium citrate and citric acid. In one or more embodiments, the active agent is selected from the group consisting of: Acyclovir, Azelaic acid, Benzoyl peroxide, Betamethasone 17 valerate micronized, Caffeine, Calcipotriol hydrate, Ciclopiroxolamine, Diclofenac sodium, Ketoconazole, Miconazole nitrate, Minoxidil, Mupirocin, Nifedipine regular, Permethrin BPC cis:trans , Piroxicam, Salicylic acid, Terbinafine HCl, estradiol hemihydrate and progesterone or combinations thereof. In one or more embodiments, the active agent includes progesterone, estrogen, a derivative thereof or mixtures thereof, or the active agent includes a vitamin, such as Vitamin D, retinol, retinoic acid, tocopherol, Vitamin K, Vitamin C or Vitamin B or a derivatives thereof, or a steroid, or a mixture of a steroid and a vitamin. In one or more embodiments, the composition comprises a polymeric agent and the polymeric agent is selected from the group of bioadhesive polymers, and for example, the polymeric agent is selected from the group consisting of hydroxypropylcellulose and carbomer. In one or more embodiments, the hydrophilic solvent further comprises a polyol selected from the group consisting of propylene glycol and hexylene glycol, and the ratio of butylene glycol to hexylene glycol is in the range of Compositions including a polyethylene glycol solvent or derivative or mixtures thereof or includes a propylene glycol derivative or combinations of polyethylene glycols with or without propylene glycol containing an effective amount of one or more active, therapeutic, pharmaceutical or cosmetic agents can be applied to the skin, a body cavity, a mucosal surface, the nose, the mouth, the eye, the ear canal, the respiratory system, the vagina and the rectum. Such carriers and compositions are adaptable to deliver active, therapeutic, pharmaceutical or cosmetic agents with water as a minor constituent or with little or no water. This can be convenient where agents are susceptible to oxidation and breakdown in solution. Vitamins may for example breakdown in the presence of water and may not be stable in compositions for sufficiently long periods of time to facilitate satisfactorily cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. The compositions as described hereinabove can be used for treating disorders of the skin, mucosa, and body cavities as described in greater detail herein. In various embodiments, hydrophilic solvents, such as polyethylene glycol or propylene glycol, are used as solvents in a waterless system. These hydrophilic solvents, while not as polar a water, nonetheless provide a degree of polarity that is useful in solubilizing polar or hydrophilic active agents. In addition, the use of a hydrophilic solvent provides advantages over water-based formulations, in those frequent instances when an active agent is water-unstable. Active pharmaceutical and cosmetic agents are more generally referred to as a therapeutic agent. The use of hydrophilic solvents nonetheless presents some challenges. In a foamable system, it is common to store the foamable carrier in a pressurized carrier and to charge the container with a hydrophobic propellant such as a hydrocarbon or hydrofluorocarbon. The hydrophilic carrier on its own is usually not miscible in the propellant and the hydrophobic components, including the propellant, tend to phase separate quite quickly from the hydrophilic component, including PEGs and PG. However, PEG and PG do not dissolve in propellant alone and if shaken together will quickly separate. Upon shaking together, the combination is only lightly opaque suggesting that some kind of quickly reversible micelles are formed. While surfactants and other surface active agents can help to stabilize the two phases, this is a challenge without the presence of an aqueous phase for which many surfactants have been developed and for which the formation of water emulsions is well understood. According to one or more embodiments, stable foamable compositions including a PEG or PG or mixtures provide a composition that is resistant to phase separation, or that is easily mixed by mild agitation, e. The surface active agents and polymeric agents promote the formation of a waterless emulsion between the hydrophilic glycol and the hydrophobic propellant. In one or more embodiments, the foamable carriers are substantially free of additional hydrophobic solvents, as additional hydrophobic is likely to make the task of formulating even harder as the formulation would need more stabilization One of the advantages of these hydrophilic waterless formulations, which are stored in sealed canisters, is that they can provide a safe medium for active agents that tend to break down upon exposure to one or more of water, light or air. They can also be formulated to exhibit bioadhesive properties and can be used for body cavity applications with minimal or no leakage. They are also of pleasant appearance and skin feeling. In one or more embodiments the surface active agent ranges from about less than 0.

Explain your answer.