Long quotations Place direct quotations that are 40 words or longer in a free-standing block of typewritten lines and omit quotation marks. Maintain double-spacing throughout. The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources.
This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 , Thomas, H. University of Colorado, Boulder. Citing Web Pages In Text Cite web pages in text as you would any other source, using the author and date if known.
If the author is not known, use the title and the date as the in-text citation for long titles just use the first few words. Your in-text citation should lead your reader to the corresponding entry in the reference list. New millennial Joyce [Review of the books Twenty-first Joyce, Joyce's critics: Transitions in reading and culture, and Joyce's messianism: Dante, negative existence, and the messianic self].
Modern Fiction Studies, 50 1 , Dopamine D3 receptor: A neuroprotective treatment target in Parkinson's disease.
AAT Online Encyclopedias and Dictionaries Often encyclopedias and dictionaries do not provide bylines authors' names. When no byline is present, move the entry name to the front of the citation. Provide publication dates if present or specify n. Indiana income limits [Data file]. Interactive Maps and Other Graphic Representations of Data Give the name of the researching organization followed by the date.
In brackets, provide a brief explanation of what type of data is there and in what form it appears. Finally, provide the project name and retrieval information. Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment. If an audio file or transcript is available online, use the following model, specifying the medium in brackets e. Oral History 2 [Interview transcript]. PowerPoint slides, Word document. Hallam, A. Duality in consumer theory [PDF document].
Federal regulations of chemicals in the environment [PowerPoint slides]. Word, Excel or programming languages. Provide references only for specialized software.
Ludwig, T. PsychInquiry [computer software]. New York: Worth. Hayes, B. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, Please note that titles for items in online communities e. If the author's name is not available, provide the screen name. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets.
If available, provide the URL where the message is archived e. Frook, B. New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25].
J Dean. When the self emerges: Is that me in the mirror? However, because the creators of digital videos often go by pseudonymous screen names, this information is included after the author's name. If you do not know the complete date, put as much information as you can find. For example you may have a year but no month or day.
If there is no date provided, put the letters n. Retrieval Date If the content of a website is likely to change over time e. Wikis , you must provide the date you last visited the website. Cancer research.
Possible addition identifiers may include Producer, Director, etc. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23 4 ,
A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Bough and G. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. If the work is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it.
In brackets, write "Review of the book" and give the title of the reviewed work. Formatting Note: All citations should be double spaced and have a hanging indent in a Reference List. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36 1 , Title of Journal, volume number issue number if available , page range. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8.
The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Place identifiers like post or message numbers, if available, in brackets.
The community college classroom [Episode 7].