If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media. When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry.
Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses. According to Jones , "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" p. Author information can sometimes be found under an "About" section on a website.
If there is no known author, start the citation with the title of the website instead. Date The best date to use for a website is the date that the content was last updated. Otherwise look for a copyright or original publication date. Unfortunately this information may not be provided or may be hard to find. Often date information is put on the bottom of the pages of a website.
See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited. Citing authors with same last names Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation.
For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller Corresponding works cited entry: Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al.
Corresponding works cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks.
Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.
Additionally, Murray argues that the purpose of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the mind of one person into the mind of another" A Writer Teaches Writing 3.
Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers: Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon.
Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter and verse.
For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd.
Recovering emotionally from disaster. In-text references should always precede punctuation marks. Below are examples of using in-text citation.
Author's name part of narrative: Gass and Varonis found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic. For example: This suggests that familiarity with nonnative speech in general, although it is clearly not as important a variable as topic familiarity, may indeed have some effect. That is, prior experience with nonnative speech, such as that gained by listening to the reading, facilitates comprehension.
Use the following guidelines to determine how to correctly cite works by multiple authors in text.When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek.
Maintain double-spacing throughout. Author-page citation for works in an anthology, periodical, or collection When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source like, for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection , cite the author of the internal source i. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
In-Text Paraphrase. Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Derwing et al. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R.
While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource , some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research. Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence i. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Reference entry All things Nittany. Note: When using multiple authors' names as part of your narrative, rather than in parentheses, always spell out the word and.
Retrieval Date If the content of a website is likely to change over time e. When a citation is not needed Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. Teaching native speakers to listen to foreign-accented speech. Lyrical Ballads. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention.
The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television series episodes, and song titles: "Multimedia Narration: Constructing Possible Worlds;" "The One Where Chandler Can't Cry.
Cancer research. Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" Burke 3. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al.