This style provides the following paper composition. Title page Every research paper, if it is not MLA, starts with a title page. The rules are simple but strict. The title of the paper is placed in the very center of the title page. Keeping in mind that double-spacing is required, the name of the author is written beneath the title. These rules, are not as demanding as they could be, but still demand enough attention to the formatting of the title page.
The APA must be thinking that having a cover attracts more consideration to the research. As for the technical requirements, the abstract page starts with the word "Abstract" centered to the page and typed in a 12pt Times New Roman font. Many databases display abstracts in the search results and often display them before showing the full text of an article or scientific study.
It is important to create a high quality abstract that accurately communicates the purpose and goal of your paper, as readers will determine if it is worthy to continue reading or not. Are you wondering if you need to create an abstract for your assignment? You might not have to. Here are some helpful suggestions to create a dynamic abstract: Abstracts are found on their own page, directly after the title or cover page.
Include the running head on the top of the page. On the following line, write a summary of the key points of your research. Your abstract summary is a way to introduce readers to your research topic, the questions that will be answered, the process you took, and any findings or conclusions you drew.
Use concise, brief, informative language. You only have a few sentences to share the summary of your entire document, so be direct with your wording. This summary should not be indented, but should be double-spaced and less than words. If applicable, help researchers find your work in databases by listing keywords from your paper after your summary.
To do this, indent and type Keywords: in italics. Then list your keywords that stand out in your research. You can also include keyword strings that you think readers will type into the search box. Use an active voice, not a passive voice. When writing with an active voice, the subject performs the action. When writing with a passive voice, the subject receives the action. Active voice: The subjects reacted to the medication.
Passive voice: There was a reaction from the subjects taking the medication. Instead of evaluating your project in the abstract, simply report what it contains. The body of most scientific papers On the page after the abstract, begin with the body of the paper. Most scientific papers follow this format: Start with the Running head. The running head on the abstract page differs from the running head on the title page.
Also include the page number. The abstract page should be page 2. On the next line write the title. Do not bold, underline, or italicize the title. Begin with the introduction and indent the first line of the paragraph. The introduction presents the problem and premise upon which the research was based. It goes into more detail about this problem than the abstract. Begin a new section with the Method and use this word as the subtitle. Here are some examples from recent issues of the Journal Psychological Science.
Some use them regularly, while others never use them. What might be some of the pros and cons of using cute article titles? For student papers that are not being submitted for publication—including theses—author notes are generally not necessary. The first line is not indented. The abstract presents the research question, a summary of the method, the basic results, and the most important conclusions.
Because the abstract is usually limited to about words, it can be a challenge to write a good one. The heading at the top of this page is the full title of the manuscript, with each important word capitalized as on the title page. The introduction includes three distinct subsections, although these are typically not identified by separate headings.
The opening introduces the research question and explains why it is interesting, the literature review discusses relevant previous research, and the closing restates the research question and comments on the method used to answer it. Concrete examples are often very useful here. For example, the person who knows that he or she enjoys smoking but believes it to be unhealthy may experience discomfort arising from the inconsistency or disharmony between these two thoughts or cognitions.
This feeling of discomfort was called cognitive dissonance by social psychologist Leon Festinger , who suggested that individuals will be motivated to remove this dissonance in whatever way they can p. Will the answer fill a gap in the literature? Will it provide a test of an important theory? Does it have practical implications? Giving readers a clear sense of what the research is about and why they should care about it will motivate them to continue reading the literature review—and will help them make sense of it.
Breaking the Rules Researcher Larry Jacoby reported several studies showing that a word that people see or hear repeatedly can seem more familiar even when they do not recall the repetitions—and that this tendency is especially pronounced among older adults. During an orientation meeting at the nursing home, the rules and regulations were explained, one of which regarded the dining room. The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required.
The absence of tipping was a central theme in the orientation lecture, mentioned frequently to emphasize the quality of care along with the advantages of having paid in advance. However, the literature review is not simply a list of past studies. Instead, it constitutes a kind of argument for why the research question is worth addressing. By the end of the literature review, readers should be convinced that the research question makes sense and that the present study is a logical next step in the ongoing research process.
Like any effective argument, the literature review must have some kind of structure. How do these results relate to larger issues of human thoughts, feelings, and behavior? Final paragraph: Be sure to sum up your paper with a final concluding statement. End on a positive note by reminding your reader why your study was important and what it added to the literature. References labeled, centered, not bold Provide an alphabetical listing of the references alphabetize by last name of first author.
Double-space all, with no extra spaces between references. The second line of each reference should be indented this is called a hanging indent and is easily accomplished using the ruler in Microsoft Word. See the APA manual for how to format references correctly. Examples of references to journal articles start on p. Digital object identifiers DOIs are now included for electronic sources see pp. Journal article example: [Note that only the first letter of the first word of the article title is capitalized; the journal name and volume are italicized.
If the journal name had multiple words, each of the major words would be capitalized. Ecological momentary assessment of mood disorders and mood dysregulation. Psychological Assessment, 21, Intergroup relations. Aronson Eds. New York: Random House. Book example: Gray, P. Psychology 6th ed.
New York: Worth Table There are various formats for tables, depending upon the information you wish to include. See the APA manual. Be sure to provide a table number and table title the latter is italicized. Tables can be single or double-spaced.
Figure If you have more than one figure, each one gets its own page. Use a sans serif font, such as Helvetica, for any text within your figure.
Underneath the figure provide a label and brief caption e. Include error bars in your bar graphs, and note what the bars represent in the figure caption: Error bars represent one standard error above and below the mean. In-Text Citations see pp. If you are quoting directly which you should avoid , you also need to include the page number. Try to avoid using secondary sources in your papers; in other words, try to find the primary source and read it before citing it in your own work.
If you must use a secondary source, however, you should cite it in the following way: Snow as cited in Milgram, argued that, historically, the cause of most criminal acts
What is the difference between design and procedure? Lots of numbers to discuss? A third preliminary issue is the reliability of the measures. The dining room was described as similar to a fine restaurant except that tipping was not required.
The introduction starts out broad but not too broad! How to form an abstract An APA format abstract is a summary of a scholarly article or scientific study. The second is a brief overview of the method and some comment on its appropriateness.
In other words, your literature review must be balanced. Begin with the assumption that your results are valid, and explain why they might differ from others in the literature. Williams offers one explanation of this phenomenon. When you list a control variable e. Aronson Eds.