An essay is a continuous piece of writing in which ideas, propositions, research and justifications are put forward and analysed in the form of a series of paragraphs. Below are some suggested means of checking. Guidelines 1. Do you understand the essay question? If you can rephrase the question for yourself then, yes.
If not, ask for help. Is there a structure? An outline is essential: What are you going to say, and what evidence will you bring in to support it? If not, the reader is not going to be convinced by what you say, because you are clearly not in possession of the key facts. Your reader lecturer is an informed reader i. Research: Relevance: the research process will provide you with a wide range of material.
Beware of generalisations Look at the following essay question and the attempt at beginning to answer it: "Outline the difficulties facing the tourist industry today.
Travel broadens the mind. From the earliest times travel was seen as dangerous and heroic…" The writer is being too general and begins to offer some sociological evidence, which has not been asked for in the question. A better beginning to the question might have been: There are a number of significant problems facing the tourist industry today Pryer, Some of the most worrying concern the potential danger to the environment politically, physically and culturally; the place of tourism in the economy of many countries is also an issue… Question terminology Analyse key verbs used i.
These verbs give you some idea of the approach to use in your answer. Justify this statement. Outline the main stages of changes in tourism since The key verbs here, justify, outline, evaluate, diagnose need to be looked at carefully because they indicate the approach you are expected to take when you prepare and write the essay.
A dictionary can prove an invaluable help here. The other words in the question can provide the key to the subject matter you will need to include in your answer i. How to get started Generating ideas - there are various methods of doing this. Different people have different methods.
For example: Blank sheet — Take a blank sheet of paper and write whatever occurs to you, anywhere on the sheet, as you think about the question. List — List your ideas as they occur. Mind Map — sketch out all the ideas in your mind and then work out how they are related to each other.
Next you will need to ask yourself what you need to find out. Your idea-generating session should have given you some idea of the areas to follow. Your sources are likely to be books, people, magazines, journals, electronic resources and the media. Making notes Some topics require you to research more, some to think and analyse more. First, analyse the question and decide what it wants you to do.
Next, re-write it in an easily understandable form. Your notes will vary according to you and your style — make any that seem relevant to the subject area, at any time — put the information into a box, or special essay file.
This practice can help produce originality. Planning When you get to this point, you need to start to think about the reader of your essay. What you say must be clear and easy to follow, not a mass of unrelated points. Facts are important but not alone, they should be used in an organised way. Level 3 Paragraph begins here… Socio-demographic and medical history data gathering. Level 4 Paragraph begins here… Anthropometric and body composition assessment.
Level 4 Paragraph begins here… Dietary assessment. Source: DB Shaffer; Dr. Andrew Johnson www. And that decision starts with the headings. Tip 1: Write your heading as a question. A simple heading that poses a question can draw readers further into the text.
Just be sure you provide the answer early in your content. This tips works especially well with average readers. Tip 2: Keep it simple and obvious. A heading that gets right to the point will win more readers. Simple subheadings offer readers a break and help them decide whether to keep reading. Tip 3: Use simple formatting. Together they are overkill.
Just bold. And please, do not use all caps. They slow all readers down and hamper comprehension. Begin body text immediately after heading. Aside from making your paper easier to scan, having well-structured heading levels makes it easier for you, the author, to organise your ideas while writing.
While headings are considered building blocks, subheadings are to be seen as roadmaps, as they keep the author and the readers on track, and having subheadings helps you determine whether you are veering away from your main topic or not.Begin body text immediately after heading. Aside from making your paper easier to scan, having well-structured heading levels makes it easier for you, the how to write critical response essay, to organise your ideas while writing. While headings are considered building blocks, subheadings are to be seen as roadmaps, as they keep the author and the readers on track, and having subheadings helps you determine whether you are veering away from your main topic or not.
.Final Years If you are only using one level of headings, meaning that all of the sections are distinct and parallel and have no additional sections that fit within them, MLA recommends that these sections resemble one another grammatically. Identify the main purpose of the report and state clearly what you hope to achieve by the end. It starts off narrow because you are summarizing your arguments from your body. For example, if you have one level 1 heading, you need to have a second level 1 heading. Introduction The following instructions give you the University standard for presenting your written work for assessment: it is strongly recommended you follow these instructions as you are assessed on presentation in written assignments. Use Arial size 14 for main headings and Arial size 12 for sub-headings.
Information which is not directly relevant to your discussion but worthy of inclusion for follow-up purposes should be placed in the appendices. It is, however, the method that I use and I find that it is quite useful. Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis. Plan the layout of your material. Presentation of Submitted Work Anonymous Marking Most work is now required to be submitted anonymously. Explanatory — to present possible reasons for problems and situations.
They slow all readers down and hamper comprehension. List of References These are to be single line spaced and must follow the University Standard exactly in both procedure and presentation. In other words, in what order will your information or comments come in the essay? If you employ multiple levels of headings some of your sections have sections within sections , you may want to provide a key of your chosen level headings and their formatting to your instructor or editor. It makes it easier to read.
And that decision starts with the headings.
It is, however, the method that I use and I find that it is quite useful. Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals 1, 2, 3, 4, etc. You may summarise your arguments in the concluding paragraph, drawing together the threads of an argument but also reminding the reader that your essay hopefully has proved the points you set out to make. Often, they find that they have several great ideas that come to them all at once and therefore have difficultly trying to get all of these ideas on paper. However, you should make your sources clear at the end of the essay.
Your introduction should start off broad and be narrowed down to your thesis, which should be the last sentence of your first paragraph represents top of the hourglass. Make amendments 8. What you say must be clear and easy to follow, not a mass of unrelated points. While headings are considered building blocks, subheadings are to be seen as roadmaps, as they keep the author and the readers on track, and having subheadings helps you determine whether you are veering away from your main topic or not. Compile a plan of action and prioritise set tasks 3. Things to remember when writing headings and subheadings Keep headings concise.
Major headings should be in bold and centred; type these in size 14 upper and lower case letters; sub-headings should be typed in upper and lowercase letters, size 12, aligned to the left margin and bold. Should a lecturing team require you to present your work in any format and style other than these instructions, they will directly inform you of this. Your sources are likely to be books, people, magazines, journals, electronic resources and the media.