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Research paper about population

  • 02.03.2019

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The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, etc. Springer has partnered with Copyright Clearance Center's RightsLink service to offer a variety of options for reusing Springer content. Furthermore agriculture makes it possible to increase the amount of food produced within a given area, so it is possible to accommodate population increase even without migrating to new lands.

Perhaps even more important, for farming households in most pre-modern agricultural communities it was important to have lots of children because this increased the available labor. In a world of high death rates commonly in pre-modern agricultural societies, up to 20 percent of infants died in their first year, and another 30 percent before their fifth birthday , the best way of maximizing the number of children surviving to adulthood was to have as many children as possible.

Such behavior, and the increased resources available within agrarian societies, ensured that populations would grow much faster than in the Paleolithic era. As in the Paleolithic era, population growth led to migrations, and as farmers migrated they helped spread agriculture around the world. But migration was not the only option, for farmers, unlike foragers, could also create larger and more densely settled communities.

Seeing these long-term trends was not always easy at the time, because local population gains could easily be wiped out by famines or epidemics. So, to contemporaries, cycles of growth and decline were more apparent than the long-term trend toward growth.

Indeed, these cycles provide the central idea of Thomas Malthus — , the founder of modern demographic studies: that population growth would always end up exceeding productive capacity so that periodic population crashes were inevitable.

Industrial and Scientific Innovation In the last thousand years, population growth has accelerated once again as the global human population has risen from million one thousand years ago, to million two hundred years ago, and about 6. There are many specific causes for population increase in given instances, but once again, the most general explanation for this increase is that increasing rates of innovation have allowed humans to produce the food and resources needed to support rapid population growth.

Death rates fell in many parts of the world in the last two centuries, partly because of the spread of new crops and improved knowledge about basic sanitation. In the twentieth century, scientific medicine and the introduction of antibiotics have reduced death rates throughout the world. But despite such advances, populations could not have continued to rise if it had not been for the burst of innovation we associate with the industrial revolution, which provided the energy, the resources, and the techniques needed to feed, clothe, and supply the rapidly increasing populations of the modern era.

Some of the most important new technologies included improved forms of irrigation, the introduction of artificial fertilizers and pesticides, the use of fossil fuels in agriculture, and the breeding of new and more productive varieties of major food crops such as rice and maize. Equally important was the huge increase in available energy supplies made possible by the fossil fuels revolution.

This trend seems to mark a return to a regime of systematic population limitation, like that of the Paleolithic era. Population Growth as a Historical Force Although population growth has been a consequence of innovation, it has also shaped human history in profound ways. The size and density of populations can have a profound effect on rates of innovation, as well as on the structure of society, the power of states, the spread of disease, the health of commerce, and the availability of labor.

The following are some of the major types of change in which population growth plays a significant role. We have seen already that population growth can stimulate migration by causing localized overpopulation. Such migration, in its turn, has been one of the major causes of the spread of agricultural communities throughout the world. The rough calculations of the political scientist Rein Taagepera suggest that the area of the inhabited Earth within agrarian civilizations a very rough measure of the area dominated by farming grew from 0.

While population growth was often the primary trigger for migrations of farmers into new regions, states often backed such migrations because their own fortunes depended on the size of the tax-paying populations under their control. State-backed migrations of this kind have been particularly spectacular in recent centuries as imperial states such as Russia, China, Spain, and Great Britain backed migrations of farmers into previously unfarmed lands in Siberia, Asia, the Americas, and Australasia.

Population growth has been one of the main drivers of increasing social complexity. There is little evidence for significant increases in the size or complexity of human communities until very late in the Paleolithic era.

But human societies began to change significantly as soon as population densities started to rise with the appearance of agriculture. Larger, denser communities could no longer be organized through the informal kinship structures that worked well enough in foraging communities, most of which consisted of just a handful of people.

Once hundreds or even thousands of people began to live together in villages and towns, new types of social coordination became necessary to limit conflict, organize worship, and organize collective activities such as defense, or the maintenance of irrigation systems.

Eventually larger communities, supported by more productive technologies, allowed for the beginnings of specialization. No longer was everyone a farmer; so specialists had to buy their food and other necessities through markets, which had to be regulated and protected. Cities required even more sophisticated forms of coordination to manage refuse collection and maintain water quality, and for defense.

The earliest states appeared, in part, to take over the new organizational tasks that emerged within dense communities; but their power also reflected the large numbers of people they controlled and taxed. In the last two hundred years, population growth has created new and even more complex human communities, so that modern states have had to acquire new administrative and technological skills to manage, tax, and coordinate the activities of many millions of people.

All in all, increasing population density counts as one of the main drivers of social complexity in human history. Population growth and the human migrations that resulted from it have also been a major cause of ecological degradation in human history. There is increasing evidence that this was true even in the Paleolithic era as communities of foragers developed technologies that had a significant impact on their environments. It seems likely that the arrival of humans led to the extinction of many species of large animals, particularly in Australia, Siberia, and the Americas.

Moreover, since we live in an interconnected world, it is an international problem from which no one can escape. In our judgment, this problem can be successfully attacked by developing new methods of fertility regulation, and implementing programs of voluntary family planning widely and rapidly throughout the world.

Although only a few nations have made any concerted efforts in this direction, responsible groups in the social, economic, and scientific communities of many countries have become increasingly aware of the problem and the need for intelligent and forthright action.

We recommend that these groups now join in a common effort to disseminate present knowledge on population problems, family planning, and related bio-medical matters, and to initiate programs of research that will advance our knowledge in these fields.

Of special importance is the need for extensive and immediate research in the field to learn how we can make family planning more effective in societies that recognize the need for it.

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Free about papers are not written by our writers, research are contributed by users, paper we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. Population a species, humans have shown a unique capacity to adapt to their environments in ways that allow about to utilize resources from their surroundings. Thus, throughout human history, long-term population growth has stimulated change, but the demographic trends population themselves been affected by technological innovations, research patterns, the actions of states, and the research of disease. When seen over large time scales, population growth is one of the most striking features paper human about. One hundred thousand years ago, there may have been just paper few tens of thousands of humans on Earth. Today, there research paper how to write an abstract example more than 6 billion, and population can be found on all continents on Earth even on Antarctica.
Research paper about population
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Aims and Scope

Paleolithic Migration and Early Agriculture Population increase is apparent even in the Paleolithic foraging era, though in this era it mainly took the form of a slow but accelerating capacity to migrate into new environments. Though we have no direct evidence, we can be sure that these migrations meant an increase in the total number of humans. Perhaps even more important, for farming households in most pre-modern agricultural communities it was important to have lots of children because this increased the available labor. Eventually larger communities, supported by more productive technologies, allowed for the beginnings of specialization.
See also:. Humans probably evolved in the savanna lands of southern and eastern Africa, and for all but the last ten thousand years, we have lived as foragers. In the last two hundred years, population growth has created new and even more complex human communities, so that modern states have had to acquire new administrative and technological skills to manage, tax, and coordinate the activities of many millions of people. Once hundreds or even thousands of people began to live together in villages and towns, new types of social coordination became necessary to limit conflict, organize worship, and organize collective activities such as defense, or the maintenance of irrigation systems. Furthermore, in Britain growing populations increased the demand for fuel, which highlighted the shortage of wood and stimulated increasing use of coal, thereby encouraging the fundamental innovations above all the steam engine that led to increased use of fossil fuels. Furthermore agriculture makes it possible to increase the amount of food produced within a given area, so it is possible to accommodate population increase even without migrating to new lands.

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The size and density of populations can have a profound effect on rates of innovation, as well as on the structure of society, the power of states, the spread of disease, the health of commerce, and the availability of labor. The earliest states appeared, in part, to take over the new organizational tasks that emerged within dense communities; but their power also reflected the large numbers of people they controlled and taxed. Although only a few nations have made any concerted efforts in this direction, responsible groups in the social, economic, and scientific communities of many countries have become increasingly aware of the problem and the need for intelligent and forthright action. Boserup, E. Humans have multiplied in this way because they are more innovative than other animals. Yet it is also possible to argue that innovations in agriculture industry and commerce in turn led to further population growth. The earliest states appeared, in part, to take over the new organizational tasks that emerged within dense communities; but their power also reflected the large numbers of people they controlled and taxed. The size and density of populations can have a profound effect on rates of innovation, as well as on the structure of society, the power of states, the spread of disease, the health of commerce, and the availability of labor. Bibliography: Anderson, J. Modern anthropological studies suggest that foragers have many ways of limiting population growth, including prolonged breast feeding and even infanticide. A concise history of world population. There is little evidence for significant increases in the size or complexity of human communities until very late in the Paleolithic era.

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Research paper about population
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Reviews

Yoktilar

Population growth was also caused in part by an increase in the areas being farmed or exploited in new ways, both within major states and in newly colonized regions, usually with the backing of governments. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.

Kajiran

For Readers While the advice and information in this journal is believed to be true and accurate at the date of its publication, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may have been made. Health and the rise of civilization. Basingstoke, U.

Vudogar

In the last two hundred years, population growth has created new and even more complex human communities, so that modern states have had to acquire new administrative and technological skills to manage, tax, and coordinate the activities of many millions of people.

Kigami

Once hundreds or even thousands of people began to live together in villages and towns, new types of social coordination became necessary to limit conflict, organize worship, and organize collective activities such as defense, or the maintenance of irrigation systems.

Shakinos

See also:. Indeed, these cycles provide the central idea of Thomas Malthus — , the founder of modern demographic studies: that population growth would always end up exceeding productive capacity so that periodic population crashes were inevitable. There is increasing evidence that this was true even in the Paleolithic era as communities of foragers developed technologies that had a significant impact on their environments.

Zulkijinn

This remains true even though each particular community remained small, so that contemporaries could hardly be aware that human numbers were increasing. Author is requested to use the appropriate DOI for the article. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. But the slow spread of agrarian communities during the last ten thousand years has had a much more profound impact on the environment.

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